NSA Suite B Cryptography
NSA Suite B Cryptography is a set of cryptographic algorithms promulgated by the National Security Agency as part of its Cryptographic Modernization Program. It is to serve as an interoperable cryptographic base for both unclassified information and most classified information.
Suite B was announced on 16 February 2005. A corresponding set of unpublished algorithms, Suite A, is “used in applications where Suite B may not be appropriate. Both Suite A and Suite B can be used to protect foreign releasable information, US-Only information, and Sensitive Compartmented Information (SCI).”
Suite B’s components are:
- Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) with key sizes of 128 and 256 bits. For traffic flow, AES should be used with either the Counter Mode (CTR) for low bandwidth traffic or the Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) mode of operation for high bandwidth traffic (see Block cipher modes of operation) – symmetric encryption
- Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) – digital signatures
- Elliptic Curve Diffie–Hellman (ECDH) – key agreement
- Secure Hash Algorithm 2 (SHA-256 and SHA-384) – message digest
As of October 2012, CNSSP-15 stated that the 256-bit elliptic curve (specified in FIPS 186-2), SHA-256, and AES with 128-bit keys are sufficient for protecting classified information up to the Secret level, while the 384-bit elliptic curve (specified in FIPS 186-2), SHA-384, and AES with 256-bit keys are necessary for the protection of Top Secret information. As of August 2015, NSA indicated that only the Top Secret algorithm strengths should be used to protect all levels of classified information.
Certicom Corporation of Ontario, Canada, which was purchased by BlackBerry Limited in 2009, holds some elliptic curve patents, which have been licensed by NSA for United States government use. These include patents on ECMQV, but ECMQV has been dropped from Suite B. AES and SHA had been previously released and have no patent restrictions. See also RFC 6090.
Quantum resistant suite
In August, 2015, NSA announced that it is planning to transition “in the not too distant future” to a new cipher suite that is resistant to quantum attacks. “Unfortunately, the growth of elliptic curve use has bumped up against the fact of continued progress in the research on quantum computing, necessitating a re-evaluation of our cryptographic strategy.” NSA advised: “For those partners and vendors that have not yet made the transition to Suite B algorithms, we recommend not making a significant expenditure to do so at this point but instead to prepare for the upcoming quantum resistant algorithm transition.”
- NIST, Recommendation for Pair-Wise Key Establishment Schemes Using Discrete Logarithm Cryptography, Special Publication 800-56A
- RFC 5759, Suite B Certificate and Certificate Revocation List (CRL) Profile
- RFC 6239, Suite B Cryptographic Suites for Secure Shell (SSH)
- RFC 6379, Suite B Cryptographic Suites for IPsec
- RFC 6460, Suite B Profile for Transport Layer Security (TLS)
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NSA Suite B Cryptography